The trademark of Roman architecture is a pediment over columns.This nostalgia for the pax romana can be seen on thousands of buildings.
pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a pillar is a compression member. The term column applies especially to a large round support with a capital and base and made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is typically called a post, and supports with a rectangular or other non-round section are usually called piers. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, pillars may be designed to resist lateral forces. Other compression members are often termed “pillars” because of the similar stress conditions. Pillars are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, “Pillars” refers to such a structural element that also has certain proportional and decorative features. A Pillar might also be a decorative element not needed for structural purposes; many pillars are “engaged”, that is to say form part of a wall. The Greeks developed the classical orders of architecture, which are most easily distinguished by the form of the column and its various elements. Their Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders.
In architecture the capital (from the Latin caput, or “head”) forms the topmost member of a Pillar. and The Base is a forms at the lowermost member of a pillar It mediates between the Pillar and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column’s supporting surface.
A cornice (from the Italian cornice meaning “ledge”) is generally any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element— the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a pedestal or along the top of an interior wall. A simple cornice may be formed just with a crown molding.
The function of the projecting cornice of a building is to throw rainwater free of the building’s walls. In residential building practice, this function is handled by projecting gable ends, roof eaves, and gutters.
A baluster also called spindle for stair stick is a moulded shaft,
square or of lathe-turned form, a form cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in architecture,
made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal,standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase.
In architecture a corbel or console is a structural piece of stone, jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight, a type of bracket.
A corbel is a solid piece of material in the wall, whereas a console is a piece applied to the structure.
The technique of corbelling, where rows of corbels deeply keyed inside a wall support a projecting wall or parapet,
The word “corbel” comes from Old French and derives from the Latin corbellus, a diminutive of corvus (a raven) which refers to the beak-like appearance.
Similarly, the French refer to a bracket-corbel, usually a load-bearing internal feature, as a corbeau (a crow).